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Frame Check Sequence (FCS), sometimes also called Cyclic Redundancy Check, in High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) frame used for the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) — a practical approach for the programmer.

FTP (A & P)
The file transfer protocol uses two ports and can be used in active or passive mode. The difference of those two modes is shown.

RF Spectrum
The electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) spectrum from the ultra long waves to the microwaves with the names, frequencies and bands.

Satellite Access
Some calculators that help in determining the parameters necessary to access a telecommunications satellite:

  • Aligning a parabol antenna (satellite dish) to a satellite,
  • Calculation of the intermediate frequency (IF) for converters,
  • Calculation of the bandwidth of differently modulated carriers.
  © 2004 - 2017 by Horo Wernli.